Muhammad Nawaz Khan.
- Secure IP Mobility Management for VANET;
- Southern Destiny (Beowolffs Handpicked Tales of Action and High Adventure).
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- The Mayflower and the Pilgrims New World!
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- Secure IP Mobility Management for VANET;
This results in frequent handoffs as vehicles move across a series of adjacent access points. Due to which, the overall throughput reduces and hence results in the interruption of many established connections. Greater latency, triangular routing and packet loss are some of the main issues in MIPv6. Introduction On the average, in United States of America there are more than 6 million car road accidents annually. More than 3 million people get injured due to car accidents, with more than 2 million of these injuries being permanent.
While, half of the these highway accidents are mainly due to vehicles leaving the road or traveling unsafely through intersections. Also more than 40 hour are wasted on weekly basis of passengers in primary hours  . Due to these facts there is always a need for a safe and DOI : With such a system vehicles will communicate with each other and with road side infrastructure.
Such safety applications dramatically decrease the number of accidents. If an alarm massage is provided to drivers half a second before, then 60 percent of accidents are avoided . Such mechanism also decreases the energy consumption, save precious time, increase human safety, avoid congestion and also increase productivity. For deployment such system, there is always needed a reliable and efficient network, which have high mobility, dynamic configuration, context awareness, infrastructure-less and fast changing topology.
These Mobile Ad hoc Networks MANETs have some distinct features like limited range, limited bandwidth, low energy resources but more efficient and fast in data collection and forwarding. Actually MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes, build on ad hoc demands and work as wireless network, nodes moving from place to place in peer to peer fashion. MANET has no pre-define structure, no centralized administration, so any node may leave or enter the network.
The self organizing nature of the ad hoc network comprises the nodes into arbitrary and temporary ad hoc topology. Any device can move independently in any direction and continually changing its links to other devices, data may be collected and forwarded and therefore each device working as a router. MANETs are also known as mobile mesh network. As MANETs are autonomous and self configuring networks of mobile nodes, these mobile nodes can be fixed on cars, ships or air planes etc.
The main goal of such networks is to provide safety and comforts. But before constructing such networks certain issue must be addressed about its rapid changing topology, routing, content managements, security and quality of services. Delay sensitive and Delay tolerant. Delay sensitive data is collected by the safety related applications while delay tolerant data is collected by comfort applications.
Delay sensitive data is about co-operative collision avoidance amongst cars, about warning massages like post crash and obstacle on road side and also information about the car condition like speed limit, engine statistics etc. Delay tolerant data is related to passenger comfort and traffic efficiency. This may include current traffic condition, weather condition, automatic payment for parking, toll collection, e-banner advertisement and business related. These service also known as value added service or user application data.
The delay sensitive data must have some priority, due to the reason that, it needs quick assessment as compared to any other data. These protocols ensure continuous connection to real-time high speed data and multimedia applications with low latency and packet loss. Section 3 contains the background and related work to the topic. Section 4 discuses the standard IEEE Each vehicle work as a node, which is the part of ad hoc network, can receive and forwards massages to wireless network.
Background The main focus of the VANETs is to deploy a low cost, reliable and efficient communication network for transportation system. The safety related application mainly concern with emergency warning massages, co-operative collision warning massages etc, while value added applications are mainly concerned with entertainment and mobile commerce .
In a vehicular environment, a mobile node MN moves with high rates of speed. The speed of a MN is very important factor that tells that how much time the MN stays in the communication range of a network and if the speed of the MN increases, the handover will result more frequently, which will certainly affect Quality of Service QoS.
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So an optimized handover mechanism is always needed which maximize the use of short connectivity periods, support delay-sensitive applications and enhance throughput . First time in , U. VANET is an application of mobile ad hoc network. Research Summary. As a network- based mobility management protocol, PMIPv6. My current research is at the intersection of communication theory, signal processing, and information theory. Pdf secure ip mobility management for vanet. VANET topology is harder to manage when the speed between vehicles are high.
This information is used to ensure safe and free flow of traffic by. A primary research thrust is the advancement of MIMO multiple- input multiple- output communication technology including space- time coding, efficient receiver algorithms, channel quantization, synchronization, scheduling algorithms, cross- layer design for MIMO ad hoc. The suitable candidates for the leader position are assessed after the server has collected feedback or reputation scores from following vehicles. To ensure that no malicious vehicle compromises the ranking procedure by injecting untruthful feedback, a filtering algorithm is used to exclude their feedback.
Besides privacy issues, several security attacks can be initiated in a CACC-enabled platoon, either by external i. Beacons messages normally used for intra-platoon communication, between the leader and the followers, are vulnerable to such malicious or misbehaving attackers. In the following section we describe how SDN could offer mechanisms for detecting and thwarting attacks from such malicious users. The analysis is conducted in the two distinct modes of platoon operation: the normal traveling and the platoon management maneuvers. In this mode, the platoon is a stream of vehicles traveling on a straight highway.
The platoon leader P j I where I denotes the Platoon id and j denotes the id of the vehicle inside the platoon will trigger a slowing down action or a speeding up action to increase or decrease respectively the intra-platoon distance. To do this, the platoon leader relies on beaconing to exchange crucial parameters for a longitudinal control [ 48 ].
Position and acceleration are the most critical parameters in maintaining a safe gap between the stream of vehicles. An attacker can compromise safety by operating replay attacks and jamming attacks on beacons. The malicious user captures and replays a previously generated beacon at a later time or in other parts of the platoon.
- Securing IP Mobility Management for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks;
- Enabling SDN in VANETs: What is the Impact on Security?;
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The replayed beacon includes expired information not relevant to the current situation of the platoon. For example, the platoon leader P 1 A triggers an acceleration phase and sends a beacon to other followers to make them catch up.
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The adversary user periodically injects an old beacon with the old acceleration. Vehicles such as P 3 A assume that the leader is driving at the normal speed and do not accelerate, potentially resulting to platoon splitting. In order to prevent replay attacks on platoons, the SDN paradigm can suggest two options.
The first is to use a globally synchronized time for all vehicles. The central controller is a suitable candidate for providing a time reference making it pointless to inject old beacons into the platoon. The second option is based on the use of nonce numbers to uniquely identify each communication, preventing the malicious node from impersonating future communications inside the platoon.
Different attacks on a platoon. The attacker can be either a stationary or a moving jammer. Given the nature of the mobility of the platoon, it is rational to have a moving jammer that tracks the considered platoon and causes regular interference. The high level of interference coupled with the continuous aspect of this attacks makes it a thorny problem.
P 2 A re-broadcasts the beacon to the next follower vehicle. The malicious user jams the same channel and disrupts the correct reception of the beacon by P 3 A and the remaining vehicles. Subsequently, vehicles inside the platoon will keep the same acceleration and hence can cause fatal collisions. This list is updated regularly, based on the general overview of the controller. Channels are removed from the blacklist if the badness metric is below a specific threshold. To realize this mode of operation, the RSUC can use the WSA message to announce to leaders the suitable communications channels to use for their further communications with followers.
Then, to enable its follower vehicles to learn the blacklisted channels, the leader represents it as a bitmap and embeds it in its beacons. Beacons are then forwarded in the data plane using multi-hop communications. Thus, vehicles are able to re-broadcast beacons avoiding using channels experiencing jamming. During its journey, the platoon structure can undergo changes leading to it is becoming bigger or smaller stream of vehicles. The platoon management protocols handle three basic maneuvers: merge, split and lane change. Each maneuver is coordinated by exchanging a sequence of micro-commands [ 49 ].
In this section we analyze the possible attacks that can frustrate the correct operation of these maneuvers. The platoon management protocol is based on a coordination approach. The leader initiates the desired maneuver and followers either obey or send requests to the leader.